US War Dog Association | National Headquarters

Medical History: Army War Dogs

Army Dogs

The Army dogs of World War  II marked the first use of large numbers of dogs in the U.S.  military forces. In the Zone of Interior, 10,368  trained dogs were issued by dog centers to the U.S. Army and the U.S. Coast  Guard; 1,894 of these were transshipped to oversea commands and theaters (1). In  the Central Pacific Area, two dog training centers issued and reissued 344  trained dogs. Another 200 dogs were obtained or raised in Greenland, and 500 or more trained dogs were borrowed from our Allies and used at  the American airfields, bases, and depots in the European theater and the  Southwest  Pacific Area. These animals received professional care and supervised management  from the Army Veterinary Service similar to that provided for the Army’s horses  and mules-having for its objectives the protection of dog health, preservation  of physical efficiency, and the safeguarding of troop health against those  diseases transmissible to the human being. These objectives were accomplished  by physical examinations; establishment of quarantine procedures; treatment  and hospitalization of disabled dogs; practice of preventive veterinary  medicine; technical supervision over animal management, including their food,  shelter, and transportation; and technical training of dog-handling personnel.  In-service deaths, or destructions on account of disease and injury, of trained  Army dogs from the Zone of Interior were 1,267 (2).

Before World War II, the  Army Veterinary Service was concerned with dogs only to the extent that  individual veterinary officers at the Army camps provided professional care for  troop mascots and animals privately owned by military personnel. At times, there  were matters of operating a rabies control program and of supervising the  quarantine of pet dogs being shipped, particularly to or from the oversea  departments. In 1938 the Veterinary Division, Surgeon General’s Office, was  asked to furnish medicines for the care of 44 sled dogs1 at Chilkoot Barracks, Alaska  (3, 4). In mid-1941, the Army Veterinary Service made arrangements for the care  and reconditioning of 40 sled dogs which had been given to the Army by the Byrd  Antarctic Expedition, and later, conducted physical examinations of a few sled  dogs which were being procured to augment the Byrd dog teams-these then being  transshipped to Greenland (5, 6, 7). A small project of dog procurement and  training was started by the Coast Artillery Corps at Fort MacArthur, Calif., in December 1940  (8).

1After January 1941, this    group of dogs was transferred to Fairbanks, Alaska.


616

DOG PROCUREMENT

The foregoing antedates the  official recognition which is generally given to Army dogs, 13 March 1942, when the Under Secretary of War granted  approval to the Quartermaster Corps to accept 200 trained guard dogs that were  offered by the American Theater Wing, Inc. (9, 10). The civilian project,  dependent upon the volunteer efforts of dogs owners and trainers and without a  potential to expand if more dogs were needed, was soon replaced by the War Dog  Program (11, 12). Under this program, Dogs for Defense, Inc.-representing the  interests of the Nation’s patriotic dog owners-was named as the agency to  procure dogs, other than sled dogs, by donation from civilian dog owners (13,  14), and the Quartermaster Corps undertook their training. Sled dogs were to be  obtained by Army purchase. During July 1942, the Secretary of War asked for an  expansion of the Army War Dog Program, and, 2 months later, the War Production  Board named the Army Quartermaster Corps as the sole agency to supply trained  dogs to the armed services and other Federal agencies (15, 16, 17). On 1 March 1945, Dogs for Defense, Inc., ceased its dog  procurements for the Army; thenceforth the Quartermaster Corps purchased or  received gift donations of all dogs direct from the civilian owners. Until this  time, Dogs for Defense, Inc., had accepted the voluntary donation of  approximately 40,000 dogs. After preliminary examination at dog assembly and  shipping centers, 18,000 of these dogs were sent at Government expense to the  Army dog reception and training centers. The Army procurement numbered 1,380  dogs as of late August 1945.

The veterinary service for  these dogs after they had been accepted by the Army, was continuous. It began  with the physical examinations that were conducted on the sled dogs and at  procurement points on all other Army-procured dogs after 1 March 1945. However, the 18,000 recruit dogs received from  Dogs for Defense, Inc., were not examined by the Army Veterinary Service until  after their arrival at the Army dog centers. The latter group of dogs may have  been examined by civilian veterinarians on a volunteer basis at the Dogs for  Defense, Inc., assembly areas and shipping points (18, 19, 20). An estimated  1,500 recruit dogs died, or were destroyed with the owner’s consent, for  physical disability,2 or on account of disease or injury before being actually  entered into the Army dog centers (2). One recruit dog developed rabies within a  few days after its arrival at the Fort Robinson, Nebr., dog training center (21), and an investigative survey of dogs for leptospirosis at the Front Royal,  Va., center showed that leptospirosis was far more widespread in the United  States than was suspected (22). Unfortunately, both the American Veterinary  Medical Association and the American Kennel Club

2A total of 2,500 recruit    dogs were destroyed on account of temperament. An unknown    number of recruit dogs, rejected for temperament or physical    disability, were returned on request of the civilian dog owners.


617

could accomplish little to  prevent this flow of disabled and diseased recruit dogs into the Army dog  centers.

In the Zone of Interior, six  Army dog centers (table 57)-originally designated war  dog reception and  training centers-were established  (21, 23 through 28). Their mission was to  receive, train, and issue dogs and to instruct dog-handling personnel. The Camp  Rimini    center was designed particularly for processing  only sled and pack dogs,3 and the installation at Beltsville was established  within the  Agricultural    Research  Center  for purposes of conducting research on dog  nutrition and developing an Army dog ration. These dog centers, with the  exception of the Cat Island installation (24) which was originally an activity  of the Army Ground Forces (September 1942 to April 1943),4 were operated by  the Quartermaster Remount Service in a manner comparable to the operation of  remount depots (for horses and mules). Each dog center organization included a  veterinary detachment which operated a dog dispensary or hospital. Drawings for  the construction of these dispensaries were prepared during November 1942 by

TABLE 57.- Location of Army dog centers, Zone of Interior, 1942-45

Location Opening date Closing date
Front Royal, Va. 4 Aug. 1942 17 Nov. 1944
Fort Robinson, Nebr. 3 Oct. 1942 December 1945
Cat            Island, Gulfport, Miss. September 1942 15 July 1944
Camp            Rimini            (Helena), Mont. 11 Dec. 1942 20 June 1944
San Carlos, Calif. 28 Dec. 1942 31 Oct. 1944
Beltsville, Md. January 1943 August 1944

the Office of the Chief of  Engineers (29). The veterinary hospitals, on recommendations made by the  Veterinary Division, Surgeon General’s Office, were constructed outside of the  dog training areas and, wherever possible, near existent veterinary (horse and  mule) hospitals (fig. 67) in order to effect economies of certain services and  supplies (30, 31). The veterinary hospital requirements were described as  comprising an office, storage room, an examining-operating room, and a number  of hospital kennels equal to 6 percent of the center’s dog population. The  capacity of the veterinary facilities newly constructed in the six dog centers  in the Zone of Interior approximated 400.

3A few Army-owned pack or    sled dog teams were trained for the Army at a civilian dog kennel. The Army    Veterinary Service experienced difficulties in establishing a program of    preventive    veterinary medicine for these dogs until after an enzootic of canine distemper    had caused the loss of many dogs. 4The Army Ground Forces    project on training dogs was conducted by a civilian-employee trainer whose    methods proved to be undesirable, including a disregard for the veterinary and    humane treatment of the animals during their training. The project was located    in an area where filariasis was indigenous, and, on its discontinuance, the    center’s dogs were refused admission into at least one other dog center.


618

FIGURE 67.-Interior of the  Front Royal, Va., dog center hospital, showing the aisleway into  the surgical ward.

During the first 2 years,  dogs received in the Army dog centers were representative of a great number of  breeds. At one time 18 dog breeds were listed by Dogs for Defense, Inc., as  being acceptable for donation to the Army. Later, only 7 breeds of dogs were  accepted: German shepherd, Belgian sheep dog, Doberman pinscher, farm collie,  Siberian Husky, Malemute, Eskimo, and crosses of these breeds. Regardless of  their breeding, the dogs were examined individually by Veterinary Corps officers  as to physical condition, age, height (as measured at the shoulder), sex, and  color. The dog most desired was one between 14 months and 2 years of age, 20 to  26 inches tall, weighing 40 to 80 pounds, and possessing a neutral-colored  haircoat (that is, no solid white or black color). A male dog was preferred,  although a spayed bitch (unsexed female dog) was acceptable. At the beginning,  female dogs were recruited, but after the fall of 1943 many of these were spayed5 pursuant to a policy agreeable to Dogs for Defense, Inc. (32). Other  features  of this veterinary examination included observations for general conformation,  freedom from unsoundness and clinical signs of disease, and classification as to  suitability for a particular kind of military work such as

5The female dog during    periods of oestrus unaccountably caused the disruption and lengthening of the    dog’s training. Manifestly superior breeding bitches, including sled types of    dogs, were not spayed. Dog owners were to be advised of this action by Dogs for    Defense, Inc.


619

attack (or police), cart,  messenger, pack, sentry, scout, sled, or trail. Specialty dogs were those  trained in mine detection and chemical warfare agent detection, and the  so-called casualty dog.6

Veterinary physical  examination procedures relating to health status of the recruit dogs were  enunciated first in the letter, dated 4 March 1943, from the Veterinary  Division, Surgeon General’s Office, to Veterinary Corps officers at the Army dog  centers in the Zone of Interior. This  directed that examinations be made for the following diseases: Leptospirosis,  filariasis, demodectic mange, sarcoptic mange, and general parasitism. Dogs  shown to be infected with leptospirosis were to be destroyed, and those having  filariasis, mange, or any physical defect which could impair their usefulness were to be disposed of in a manner deemed to be in  the best interests of the Army and the civilian dog owner. However, where the  recruit dogs had the normal intestinal parasitic infestations or showed  clinical symptoms of an acute infectious or contagious disease (such as canine  distemper), they were to be treated and held until recovery.

Following the physical  examination, the acceptable recruit dogs were placed under a 21-day  quarantine. During this time, the dog center veterinarian initiated a dog  record card, identified the dog with a tattoo on the dog’s left ear or flank,  in accordance with the Preston brand system used in horses and mules,  administered anthelmintics for the treatment of intestinal parasitism, and  dipped the animals to control external parasites. Prophylactic inoculations  were administered against canine distemper, if the dog was less than 2 years of  age, and against rabies.

ARMY DOG CARE AND MANAGEMENT

Following their reception,  processing, and training, the dogs were issued by the Army dog centers.  During the advanced stages of the training, the potential dog-handling  personnel were ordered into the centers to become acquainted with the dogs and  to receive on-the-job instructions in dog care and management. The dog issues were made individually to camps, depots, ports, and  airbases, or by groups, such as to casual detachments and platoons.   These issues from the Army dog training centers in the Zone of Interior  totaled 10,368 dogs-of which number, 7,665 went to the Army and  3,174 were  issued to the Coast Guard. It was axiomatic that only healthy dogs in good  condition  be issued. Following issue, the pertinent commander became responsible for the  use, care and management, and veterinary service for the trained dogs. This  veterinary service normally was provided on call by the nearest assigned and  most readily available Veterinary Corps officer, although the larger dog

6The mine detection dog,    developed by the Quartermaster Corps, did not prove to be very satisfactory. The    gas detection dog was studied by the Army Veterinary Service. The casualty dog    was one trained in the locating of casualties. In field service tests, such dogs    failed to differentiate casualties from the unwounded personnel. The casualty    dog was rejected by the Army Ground Forces.


620

detachments and platoons had  their own organically assigned veterinary personnel.

Whether in the Army dog  centers or in the field, in the Zone of Interior or overseas, the problems of  managing, feeding, sheltering, and transporting dogs were common to all  concerned throughout the Army. Methods of assuring a proper approach to these  included the dissemination of technical information, the operation of programs  of training, and the inspection and reporting on Army dogs on duty with  troops. The beginning of the war found a single technical publication relating  to dogs-the Army field manual on the care of transport dogs in Arctic areas  (33, 34). For the purpose of  advancing good zootechnics in the developing Army dog program in the Hawaiian  Department  (Central Pacific Area), a veterinary officer and a civilian dog trainer prepared  a training memorandum in booklet form on dog handling, feeding, and care; it  was given Army-wide distribution in a circular letter by the Office of the  Quartermaster General during November 1942 (35, 36).  In the following year, the Veterinary Division, Surgeon General’s  Office, provided professional assistance in the revision of the technical  manual relating to pack and sled transport dogs and in the development of  another relating to the care and management of Army dogs in general (37, 38,  39).

These publications were used in programs of training for all dog-handling personnel when ordered into  the dog centers to receive dogs. In the Zone of Interior this training was  received by 2,100 Army personnel and 2,700 Coast Guard personnel. Closely  related to this training was the integration of certain veterinary subjects in  the mobilization training programs which were developed for the qualification of  officer and enlisted specialists as dog trainers for the Army (40); 15  percent of their technical training period included instructions in first aid,  preventive veterinary medicine, foods and feeding, kennel sanitation,  transportation of dogs, and use of the dog gas mask.

Another control feature over  Army dogs was the veterinary inspection and reports on their efficiency and  health. Its usefulness in the command evaluation of Army dog deployment was  recognized in the Central Pacific Area where a specially devised report was used  and in the European theater where the inspections were recorded in monthly  recurring sanitary reports (41, 42). Unfortunately, the control was not  practiced Army-wide because the Control Division, Army Service Forces, rejected  the recommendations made by the Surgeon General’s Office for initiating a  veterinary reporting system on Army dogs such as was being maintained for the  Army’s horses and mules (43). During May 1944, the existent Veterinary Report of  Sick and Wounded Animals7 was revised to include an entry of the dog mean  strength, but this new report form did not become available in most areas until  late in the war or after V-J Day.

7Also referred to as WD AGO    Form 8-129, Control Approval Symbol MCV-22, which superseded the former WD MD    Form 102.


621

The food for Army dogs was  of good quality, nutritious, and clean. The same quality and sanitary control over the  dogfood supply was  maintained by the Army Veterinary Service as was applied to the feed and forage  supply for Army horses and mules. Sometimes this dogfood originated with the  food supply for troops. For example, canned evaporated milk, canned salmon, and  canned meat components of Type C rations were fed to Army dogs,8 and in the  Central Pacific Area, a daily issue of 2 pounds of fresh frozen ground beef was  authorized for each dog (44). Actually, the dogfood supply throughout the  Army  was quite variable and presented a number of nutritional and sanitary  problems. The feeding of raw rabbit meat, for example, caused a serious outbreak  of taeniasis (or tapeworm) among dogs in the Northwest Service Command (45).  In the United Kingdom (in the European theater), the Army Veterinary Service  required that all meats be cooked, after finding that some of the supply  included meats rejected for human use on account of tuberculosis (46).

In the Zone of Interior,  during November 1942, the Quartermaster Corps authorized the procurement of  commercial dogfood and meat-the latter to supplement the diet  (47). The  commercial dogfoods then available and specifically marketed for sale to the  owners of household pet dogs and cats could not, without supplementation,  maintain an Army dog in good working condition (48). The dogfood  manufacturers later experienced difficulties in maintaining high-quality  products under the conditions of wartime shortages and priority allocations of  raw material. This was taken into account during March 1944 when the War  Department amended the Army’s dogfood supply and authorized meat as the  principal component of the dog ration. All kinds of meats and meat by-products  were suggested, but special reference was made to horsemeat. Horses and mules  found unserviceable and condemned by the Army were mallein tested for glanders (49) and slaughtered under veterinary supervision at a number of Army camps, dog  centers, and commercial establishments. Particular attention was paid to  interstate movements of the horsemeat, pursuant to Federal laws and  regulations, as well as to its special labeling (“Horse Meat for War Dogs  Only”) and handling separate from the troop food supply. At the Seattle,  Wash., depot, the Army Veterinary Service developed a canned dogfood by  combining ground horsemeat and herring; this was supplied to the Alaskan  Department (50).

Notwithstanding the great  variety of dogfoods used during the war, it must be understood that the  Veterinary Division, Surgeon General’s Office, undertook the study of dogfood in  July 1942 or soon after the official start of the Army dog program. In November  1942, the Office of the Quartermaster General expressed requirements for a  complete Army dog ration (51). Tech­

8The meat components of the    Type C ration were meat and vegetable hash, meat and vegetable stew, and meat    and beans. These were trial-fed to dogs at three centers in the Zone of Interior    pursuant to the request of the Office of the Quartermaster General, dated 25 Day    1944. The Army dog center veterinary officers, reporting on the trial feeding,    found that Type C ration meat components were satisfactory supplements.


622

nical assistance was sought  from the civilian Joint Committee on Feeds, American Veterinary Medical  Association and American Animal Hospital Association (52, 53), and from members  of the dogfood industry. In  cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, studies made on the  nutritional requirements of dogs led to the development of at least five dog  food formulas.9 Many of these were trial-fed in tests conducted by the dog  centers at Beltsville, Fort Robinson, and Front  Royal (51, 54). Considerable difficulty was experienced with the procurement of  ration components that were inexpensive and available under the conditions of  wartime supply and in obtaining a suitable binder (55, 56, 57, 58). The trial  feeding was stopped in mid-1944 after the test rations were shown to have poor  palatability and to cause diarrheal conditions and weight losses among Army  dogs when working (59, 60, 61, 62).

Studies on the defensive  measures and protective equipment against chemical warfare were initiated (63). Beginning in  August 1942, research by veterinary personnel of the  Medical Section, Office of the Chief of Chemical Warfare Service, Edgewood  Arsenal, Md., was conducted on the anatomical and physiological features that  increased the dog’s susceptibility to chemical agents. This led to the  engineering of a dog gas mask which, after service testing at the San Carlos dog  center, was standardized and procured for issue to Army dogs in the oversea  theaters (64). During 1944, these research studies led to the approval by the  Surgeon General’s Office of the issue of BAL (British anti-lewisite) eye  ointment to dog handlers in the oversea theaters (65)

The housing problem for Army  dogs, much like the feeding problem, was met in a variety of ways throughout  the Army. The Front Royal dog center maintained a large number of dogs in  individual kennels constructed about  a wooden barrel and a front  porchlike addition. At Fort Robinson, a  double­compartment kennel was devised for protection against the cold and  included a roof on hinges which could be turned back for ease of cleaning.   Individual kennels were favored over buildings which could house several  dogs. Later, the Veterinary Division, Surgeon General’s Office, cooperated with  the Office of the Chief of Engineers in the development of plans for a single  dog kennel and a kennel building10 with capacities up to  80 dogs (figs. 68 and  69) (66, 67, 68). However, the development did not prevent the  heterogeneous array of  dog kennel construction that appeared in the Zone of Interior and in over­

9Tentative U.S. Army    specifications for dogfood ration (dry), were dated 14 October 1942, 9 November    1942, 3 December 1942, 22 February 1943, and 19 November 1943. The latter    comprised the following ingredients, in pounds: Yellow corn meal, 8; wheat gray shorts, 10; wheat red dog flour, 16; second clear red wheat, 20; meat    meal, 15; animal liver and glandular meal, 6; dried skim milk, 4; soybean oil    meal, 5; peanut oil meal, 5; hydrogenated shortening, 3; alfalfa leaf    meal, 2; bone meal, 3; dried brewer’s yeast, 1.37; iodized salt, 1; fish oil,    0.63; and water. The composition of the final product was not under 28 percent    protein, 7 percent fat, and 40 percent nitrogen-free extract, and not over 3    percent fiber and 8 percent moisture.      10The plans for the kennel    buildings could be used also in constructing a veterinary dog hospital at Army    dog centers and camps, the former being attached to the type of veterinary    dispensary as previously described.


623

FIGURE 68.-A  multiple-kennel unit at the Front Royal, Va., dog center.

FIGURE 69-Cleaning and  disinfection of Army dog kennels, Front Royal, Va., dog center.


624

sea theaters. In the Panama  Canal Zone, a so-called tropical kennel-screen­enclosed and elevated above the  ground-was developed. A collapsible-type wooden kennel was developed in the  Central Pacific Area. The War Dog Detachment, China-Burma-India theater,  sheltered its dogs from the tropical heat by hanging canvas over the kennels  which were placed in an elevated position over freshly dug holes in the ground.

In the matter of  transportation of dogs, the Army Veterinary Service as­sured the movement of  only those which were in good physical condition and free of infectious or  contagious diseases, and provided veterinary health certificates to cover the  shipments. Within the Zone of Interior, no law or civilian regulatory agency  existed that could prevent the interstate, export, or import shipment of Army  dogs-in fact, almost any  dog-on account of health  reasons. The Army  Veterinary Service alone took steps against the dissemination or introduction  in the United States by Army dogs of such diseases as filariasis and  leptospirosis. Actually, few Army dogs were returned to the Zone of Interior  from the oversea theaters. Other than quarantine requirements which affected the  deployment and disposition of Army dogs, transportation presented no real  problem, whether by truck, railroad, airplane, or ship. Veterinary reports on  seven truck shipments in the Zone of Interior during 1945 showed no losses on  account of disease and injury among the 71 dogs involved. Railroad shipments  were equally successful\-no losses being reported  among 1,043 dogs in 130  shipments during the war period.  Likewise,  no real problem was experienced in connection with their movement by  airplane.11 As a  matter of fact, the sled dog teams with the Air Forces Arctic  search and rescue emits were trained for routine movement by airplane. During  the Burma campaigns, disabled dogs of the China-Burma-India War Dog Detachment  were evacuated by airplane (69).

Records on 10 overwater  movements by ship involving 341 animals indicated that only four dogs were  lost. The Army Veterinary Service at the ports of embarkation routinely examined  the dogs prior to their loading and assisted in the supervision of those  preparations of ships that had a bearing on animal health and management (70 through 77). Ordinarily, the kennel crates which were used in bringing the dogs  to the ports were installed on the ship’s deck (fig. 70). A certain amount of  gastroenteric disorders and dermatitides was reported in the dogs while en  route, but these were caused by the dogs licking or being in contact with salt  water which was used in flushing the kennel area on the ship (78, 79, 80). In  the voyages through tropical waters, it became necessary to clip the  heavier-coated dogs and to keep the dogs off the hot sun-heated steel decks.

The Army Veterinary Service  also cared for dogs outside of Army control, including those issued from the dog centers for use in the protection of civilian establishments which were  engaged in manufacture of critical supplies

11So far as is known, no    studies were made on the dropping of dogs from airplanes by parachute as were    conducted in the British Army.


625

FIGURE 70.-Special  shipping  crates for dogs, stowed aboard ships loading out of the Los Angeles, Calif.,  port. The processing of dogs for oversea deployment in World War II was under  the supervision of the port veterinary service, using the same principles of  preventive veterinary medicine that have been developed over a quarter of a  century for the shipment of horses and mules.

or were vital to civilian  economy. However, in the Zone of Interior, in instances where Veterinary Corps  officers were not readily available, service command commanders were authorized  to obtain the services of local civilian veterinarians to treat Army dogs at  civilian establishments (81). A large number of the Army-trained dogs that were  issued to the Coast Guard came under the professional supervision of Veterinary  Corps officers-these being attached to Coast Guard districts under the original  provisions of a wartime agreement, between the Secretary of War and the  Secretary of the Navy in September 1942, relating to the mounting of beach  patrols (82 through 86).


626

The Coast Guard dogs used in  the Central Pacific Area12 were given  professional services on request (44).  There too, U.S. Marine Corps “devil dog” platoons, arriving during  September 1944, were cared for by the district veterinary officers on the  islands of Maui and Hawaii. Special veterinary quarantine and professional  services were rendered in the Hawaiian Islands for seeing-eye dogs13 belonging  to discharged veterans (44, 87, 88, 89).

The diseases and injuries  reported in Army dogs were of the variety which are observed in household dogs.  The diseases and injuries commonly observed in trained Army dogs included  digestive upsets, respiratory disorders, and bite wounds; also filariasis which  was cause for the return of many from the Army camps to the dog centers for  disposition. In the Zone of Interior, actual losses of the dogs at Army camps  were negligible (90, 91, 92, 93). For example, in the First Service Command  with 563 dogs during 1943, only 9 dogs died or were destroyed on account of  disease and injury.

However, the losses and the  morbidity rates were greater at the Army dog centers where recruit dogs were  assembled, conditioned, and trained, as seen in the following tabulation of dog  morbidity and mortality at the Front Royal dog center:

Average mean strength 786
Admissions:
For disease 696
For injury 174

                    Total

870
Treatment-days 14,354
Average days per admission 18
Died or destroyed 1308
Number admitted per 1,000 average strength            per year:
For disease 965.7
For injury 241.7

                    Total

1,207.4
Number per 1,000 average animal strength per            year died or destroyed 427.5

1The specific causes of the  loss of 308 dogs included the following diseases and injuries:  Filariasis, 223; leptospirosis,  19; and sarcoptic mange, 7.

The dog morbidity and  mortality at the Front Royal dog center may be compared with those reported at  Fort Robinson where, with an average mean strength of 1,340 dogs in the period  from January 1943 through December 1945, the losses on account of disease and  injury approximated 783.4 per 1,000

12Between October 1944 and    June 1945, more than 50 Coast Guard dogs were entered into quarantine under the    supervision of the Army Veterinary Service at Fort Armstrong, Oahu, pursuant    to the animal quarantine laws and regulations of the Territory of Hawaii.      13The veterans’ seeing-eye    dogs were obtained from civilian sources through the facilities of the Veterans’    Administration. One such dog, on arrival from the Zone of Interior, was found    to have filariasis.


627

average dog strength per  year (21). This  loss included the death or destruction of 536 dogs with canine distemper or its  complications. Based on reports  of 1,826 cases of canine distemper for 1942 through 1945, the case fatality rate  for this disease approximated 31 percent. At the San Carlos dog center,  admissions for veterinary hospital treatment in the period from January through  August 1943 totaled 1,183 of which number 87 animals died or were destroyed; an  estimated 4.5 percent of that dog center’s animal strength was in the veterinary  hospital at all times (94). These 1,183 hospital cases included 211 for  enteritis, gastritis, and gastroenteritis, 198 for coryza (colds) and pneumonia,  113 for canine distemper, and 31 for eczema. At all dog centers, the control of  external parasites (fleas, sand gnats, and ticks) and the treatment for internal  parasitism were continuing problems. Bites of  venomous snakes at the Cat Island center and burns in 92 dogs  at the San Carlos dog center, which was partially destroyed by windstorm and  fire (in December 1943), were the more unusual cases of dog wounds.

Aside from the routine  professional veterinary services, programs of disease research and development  on disease control were undertaken. The Front Royal dog center and the Army  Veterinary Research Laboratory, with the assistance of the Army Institute of  Pathology, collaborated in studies on leptospirosis and filariasis. Detailed  necropsy protocols were made on 340 dogs during the period from 1 December 1942  through 20 October 1944, with results as follows (95, 96):

Pathological diagnosis Number
Infectious and parasitic diseases:
     Ancylostomiasis 3
     Canine distemper 6
     Filariasis 60
     Leptospirosis 63
     Sarcoptic mange 2
General diseases:
     Diabetes 1
     Jaundice 2
     Septicemia 2
     Tumors 8
Diseases of the            nervous system and organs of special sense:
     Amaurosis 5
     Amblyopia 1
     Cataract 1
     Encephalitis and            encephalomyelitis 23
                Encephalomalacia 2
     Keratitis 1
     Myelitis 2
     Paraplegia 2
     Others 1
Diseases of the                    circulatory system:
     Endocarditis 1
     Myocarditis 4
Diseases of the respiratory system:
Pneumonia 81
Diseases of the digestive system:
Dilation of stomach 1
Enteritis gastroenteritis 34
Torsion                    of small intestine 1
Diseases of the urinary system:
Calculus 1
Cystitis 6
Nephritis 10
Diseases of the skin and cellular tissues:
Acanthosis nigricans 3
Dermatitis varicelliform 1
Eczema 1
Ill-defined diseases:
Rabies suspect 4
Injuries (violent and accidental causes):
Heat exhaustion 3
Suffocation 2
Sunstroke 2

                            Total

340

Diagnostic tests on  filariasis were studied at the San Carlos dog center in cooperation with the  Ninth Service Command Medical Laboratory-some of these eventually finding their  way into the research on human filariasis in the Southwest Pacific Area.

OVERSEA DEPLOYMENT

Army dogs were deployed in  most of the oversea theaters during World War II. These included the 1,894  animals in casual detachments, replacement shipments, a mine detection company,  and 15 dog platoons that were sent from the Zone of Interior. One of the earlier  dog detachments shipped overseas was the eight-dog organization that was used in  the Southwest Pacific Area to test the dog in jungle warfare. Larger detachments-each with attached veterinary  personnel-were shipped to New  Caledonia (in the South Pacific Area) and the China-Burma-India theater, and an  Engineer Corps company of mine detection dogs was sent to the Mediterranean  theater (fig. 71). Other dogs were sent to the Alaskan Department, the  Caribbean Defense Command (including the original Panama Canal and Puerto Rican  Departments), the Northwest Service Command (in western Canada), and the oversea  base commands in Greenland and Newfoundland. Hundreds of others were trained  locally in the Central Pacific Area and were procured from Allied sources in the  European theater and the Southwest Pacific Area. Local procurement was  occasioned by the imposition of restrictive or prohibitive quarantines against  dog importations into the Territory of Hawaii, the United Kingdom, and  Australia.


629

FIGURE 71.-A guard dog  party of the War Dog Detachment, China-Burma-India theater, detrucking in the  Myitkyina, Burma, area in July 1944.

The early reports of the  apparent successes with dogs in certain kinds of military work gave origin, in  the spring of 1944, to a unit suitable for assignment and deployment with the  ground forces. This was the Quartermaster War Dog Platoon (including 24  messenger and scout dogs as well as 1 mine detection dog); later, in that year,  it was redesignated14 as the Infantry Scout Dog Platoon (including 27 animals)  (97, 98, 99). The platoon included the space authorization for one veterinary  enlisted man in the grade of sergeant, who was trained and equipped to provide  first aid care and treatment to the platoon dogs. Additional professional  assistance was to be sought by the enlisted technician from the nearest  available veterinary officer in the theater of operations. A total of 21 such  dog platoons were activated in the Zone of Interior; of these, 15 were deployed  overseas, as follows: 7 to the Southwest Pacific Area, including 2 platoons  which were transferred from the Central Pacific Area and another platoon which  arrived first in the South Pacific Area; 1 to the Central Pacific Area; 6 to the  Mediterranean theater; and 1 to the European theater. Platoons which were  not deployed overseas were six in number, the 46th through the 51st Infantry  Scout Dog Platoons.

14The mine detection dog    was removed from the platoon, the number of messenger dogs was decreased from 12    to 6, and the number of scout dogs was increased from 12 to 18.


630

Another type of unit having  dogs was the Army Air Forces Arctic Search and Rescue Squadron (100, 101). The  squadron Flights B, C, and D, each with veterinary enlisted personnel, were each  authorized 36 dogs to mount 4 dog sled teams. Dog sled rescue teams were used  by the Alaskan and the North Atlantic Divisions of the Air Transport Command (102).

Wherever deployed, the dog  detachments and platoons-many with attached veterinary  personnel-were provided  all assistance possible by the Army Veterinary Service in the theaters and  oversea commands. This included aid in the procurement of dogfood, veterinary  supplies, professional treatment, and obtaining command attention to matters  relating to zootechnics and animal health. The outstanding problem was  quarantine. The latter probably ranked second only to the more important and  basic factor of military usefulness or tactical efficiency in determining  whether or not dogs would be deployed. Animal quarantine gained its importance  with respect to its influence on the shipment of U.S. Army dogs from the Zone  of Interior. None were sent to the United Kingdom, and all were prohibited entry  into Australia; in the Territory of Hawaii, initial requirements were satisfied  with the output from a locally developed Army dog procurement and training  program.

European Theater

In England, the military  needs for dogs were met by the loan of trained sentry dogs from the British  Ministry of Aircraft Production (46, 103, 104). These dogs were received by the  U.S. Guard Dog Training School, Gloucestershire, England, established in late  1943, where a program of instruction in dog handling was conducted for  American soldiers. For a short period of time, veterinary officers were assigned  to the school to register the dogs (or tattoo them for purposes of  identification) and to vaccinate the dogs against rabies (105). The dogs,  issued in teams of eight, became the responsibility of the commands to which  assigned, and the Army Veterinary Service was assigned the responsibility to  provide first aid or emergency treatment for those becoming disabled and to  supervise the care, management, and feeding of the dogs within such commands.  Unfortunately, the theater’s veterinary service was handicapped because the  Quartermaster Corps could not advise on the location and the expected deployment  of the dogs and the Chief Surgeon’s Office withheld early approval on  requisitioning the necessary veterinary supplies (106, 107). The former  situation was overcome somewhat during October 1943 when monthly sanitary  reports were required from commands having British-trained dogs (42). The other  problem was lessened when the shipping of supplies from the Zone of Interior  became less critical and veterinary animal service equipment and medicines were  stockpiled. In the interim, authorization was granted for calling upon the  British civilian veterinarians to treat the disabled dogs and for the return to  the British of seriously disabled dogs. By the end of 1943, an estimated 22  teams of these dogs were on duty with the U.S. forces.


631

A large number of the  British-trained guard dogs accompanied the U.S. forces in the campaigns on  continental Europe. Before their departure from the United Kingdom, the dogs  were immunized against rabies and again at yearly intervals (108). During  1944, the Army Air Forces had an estimated 250 dogs (109), and another 50 were  used by the First U.S. Army. Locating the dogs was a major veterinary problem.  Records of those becoming sick or injured seemed to have not been kept. In  December 1944, on request, disabled dogs requiring extensive care or treatment  were evacuated to a British veterinary hospital located in the vicinity of  Rouen, France.

It was not until some time  after the cross-Channel invasion of the European Continent that Army dogs of  U.S. origin were brought into the European theater. Coming directly into  France, these dogs could be deployed at once without holding them in quarantine,  as would have been imposed if the dogs were landed in the United Kingdom for  staging and subsequent use on the Continent. As of 1 August 1944, a dog unit-the  42d Quartermaster War Dog Platoon (Mine Detection)-was being used by the  First U.S. Army, which also had British-trained guard dogs (110). During the  early months of 1945, 23 dog sled teams were flown into an airfield at  Thionville,  France, from the Dog Rescue Unit, North Atlantic Division, Air Transport  Command. These were to be used to assist in the medical evacuations from the  frontline areas which were covered with snow at the time; however, the snow soon  disappeared, and the teams were little used. These teams were assigned to the  First and Third U.S. Armies.

Southwest Pacific Area

Australia, (in the Southwest  Pacific Area) refused the entry of animals from the Zone of Interior (111). An  eight-dog detachment sent there in early 1943 was redeployed to New Guinea and  then to Goodenough and New Britain Islands. Pending their preparations for  return to the United States, sometime after February 1944, three dogs were  destroyed for reason of having been used in an area where scrub typhus was  prevalent among troops, and no factual information was available on the  transmission of this disease by dogs harboring the insect vector (mite).15 Subsequently, seven war dog platoons came into the Southwest Pacific Area and  were used in the campaigns in New Guinea, Northern Solomons, Philippines, and  Ryukyus Islands. The demands in Australia were met in part with a local dog  program,  evolving about the Quartermaster Dog Kennels, which was established in mid-1943.  As of the fall of 1943, the Veterinarian, Base Section 3, Brisbane, was  providing professional care for 35 dogs assigned to a quartermaster unit (112).

The dog platoons coming  into the Southwest Pacific Area included the 25th Quartermaster War Dog Platoon  on Bougainville and the 26th Quar­

15The cause of loss of the    other five dogs previously included: two destroyed for gun-shyness, one ran    off, and two died (cause unknown).


632

termaster War Dog Platoon on  Morotai; subsequently, both were entered into the Philippine campaigns. The 39th and 43d Quartermaster War Dog Platoons arrived later, as did the 40th and  the 41st Quartermaster War Dog Platoons which came into Leyte from the Central  Pacific Area during late 1944. Gastrointestinal disorders without apparent cause  or due to changeover to type C rations, ancylostomiasis, and eczema were  experienced as the more common diseases of the dogs in the tropical Pacific  islands (113). Revaccination against rabies became necessary after the dogs  arrived in the Philippine Islands. The 40th, 41st, and 45th War Dog Platoons-the  latter having had a stopover on Espíritu Santo (in the South Pacific Area)-were  deployed with the Tenth U.S. Army after the landings on Okinawa (1 April 1915)  (114)

Central Pacific Area

The Territory of Hawaii,  unlike Australia, permitted the entry of Army dogs from the Zone of Interior  but imposed a 120-day quarantine period under the provisions of local laws and  regulations which had been in effect for many years (44). Thus, during  September 1944, two dog platoons (the 40th and 41st Quartermaster War Dog  Platoons) came into the Territorial Animal Quarantine Station, Honolulu, but  before long the platoons were transshipped to Leyte (in the Southwest Pacific  Area). Of course, any holding of dogs inactive during quarantine was detrimental  to the unit’s efficiency. Thus, in the spring of 1945 when a third unit-the 44th  Infantry Scout Dog Platoon-arrived, the Governor of Hawaii relinquished  civilian responsibility to the Army to maintain a “working  quarantine” over these trained Army dogs (115). However, the  responsibility of maintaining the quarantine outweighed other factors, and the  platoon was soon transshipped to Saipan (in the Marianas group) for continued  training. Actually, the original requirements for Army dogs in the Central  Pacific Area were met entirely by a local program of dog procurement and  training which was comparable to that established in the Zone of Interior.

The Army dog program in the  Central Pacific Area (the successor command to the Hawaiian Department) was  separate from that undertaken in the Zone of Interior and originated on 24 May  1942, with the approval by the Headquarters, Hawaiian Department, of a plan  submitted by the department veterinarian (116, 117). On 5 August 1942, the  provisional Veterinary General Hospital, Fort Armstrong, established a dog  training center on the premises of the Territorial Animal Quarantine Station; a  subcenter was established, with the assistance of the district or service  command veterinarian, on Maui about 5 months later. In December 1942, the  local dog program had become a Quartermaster Corps responsibility; a  Quartermaster Corps employed dog trainer (Mr. E. Humphreys, of Seeing Eye  Dogs, Inc., Morristown, N.J.) and local dog owners added much to the early  development and success of the program.  Trained dogs were sent initially to  Guadal-


633

canal, and within a year  more than 400 dogs were deployed at depots, outpost positions, and vital  civilian centers on all of the Hawaiian Islands as well as on Baker, Canton,  Christmas, Midway, and Palmyra Islands; later, a few dogs were deployed to Guam,  Saipan, and Okinawa. Altogether, the Army Veterinary Service conducted physical  examinations on 3,259 dogs recruited from the civil population, of which number  815 were accepted for training and 344 completed their training.16 The major  causes for rejecting recruit dogs on preliminary physical examinations at  assembly areas or procurement points included otitis media, mange, ringworm,  current disability, dental irregularities, and abnormalities of conformation.  Filariasis was diagnosed in 12 percent of the original 310 recruit dogs which  were examined, but the disease did not constitute a cause for rejection except  where the dog manifested clinical symptoms; filariasis was an indigenous  disease. Dogs accepted for training were inoculated against canine distemper  but not against rabies since the disease was not existent in the Hawaiian  Islands. After April 1944, by amendment to the original quarantine laws and  regulations of the Territory of Hawaii, the importation of all animals, except  direct from the Zone of Interior, Australia, and New Zealand, was prohibited (118), but, by special  waiver, many locally trained Army dogs which had seen  service on the Pacific island bases were returned to the Hawaiian Islands.

South Pacific Area

In the South Pacific Area, a  120-animal Casual Dog Detachment-complete with its own veterinary  detachment-was deployed on  New Caledonia. During the 6 to 8 months following  their arrival on 21 March 1943, the dogs were used at airfields and depot  facilities; others were sent to Guadalcanal and Espíritu Santo where they were  retained for only a brief period of time (119). By November 1943, the  dogs were  placed in a caretaking status, and, in late 1944, the detachment was disbanded.  The principal causes of animal inefficiency included heat exhaustion,  ancylostomiasis (hookworm infestation), and canine filariasis (120). The  last-named disease appeared in a severe form, seemed to resist treatment, and  was cause for the disposition of the dogs locally rather than returning them  to the Zone of Interior.

China-Burma-India Theater

The War Dog Detachment,  Chine-Burma-India theater, included a casual detachment of 100 dogs shipped  from the Zone of Interior during the early months of 1944; another detachment  with 25 replacement animals joined during the spring17 of the next year (80,  121). Stationed originally at

16The number of dogs    volunteered by civilian owners totaled 7,359. More than 50 percent of the applications of volunteered dogs were    rejected after a review showed the dog to be unsuitable in one way or another.      17The detachment departed, on    27 January 1944, from the San Francisco Port of Embarkation on the S.S. Benjamin Ide Wheeler and arrived on 6 April 1944, at Calcutta, India. En    route, two dogs died.


634

Kanchrapara (near Calcutta),  India, the detachment, however, was deployed for the greater part of the time  in the Assam area (at Thanai, and later at Raidang). Groups of the dogs were  deployed in the Burma campaigns with the 5307th Composite Regiment (or  GALAHAD Force) and the 5332d Provisional Brigade (or MARS Force) and were used  also by the Office of Strategic Services, in China. The principal activities of  this unit’s veterinary detachment was the selection of kennel areas and the  arrangement for veterinary animal service for the various groups of dogs that  were assigned to services of supply facilities and the combat forces throughout  the theater. Diseases and injuries causing the most trouble, including the  common parasitic infestations (such an ancylostomiasis and taeniasis), were Lucilia macellaria infestation of wounds, filariasis, and diseases of the skin  (dermatitis and eczema); gastroenteric disturbances occurred with great  regularity. The most serious contagions included the tick-transmitted babesiasis  (or piroplasmosis) and a case of rabies in a dog, previously inoculated with  a rabies vaccine of local manufacture, that may have been bitten by wild animal.  During the period of operations in the theater, 369 cases of disease and injury  were treated, of which number 45 dogs died or were destroyed, as shown in the  following tabulation:

Average mean strength 76.9
Admissions:
For disease 330
For injury 39

                            Total

369
Treatment-days 3,804
Average days per admission 10
Died or destroyed 145
Number admitted per 1,000 average animal                    strength per year:
For disease 2,610.4
For injury 311.7

                            Total

2,922.1
Number per 1,000 average animal strength per                    year died or destroyed 350.7

1The specific causes of the  loss of 45 dogs included the following diseases and injuries: Encephalitis, 12;   piroplasmosis, 8; unreported, 4; wounds, all kinds, 3; and filariasis, 3.

Other Commands

The Army Veterinary Service  rendered professional and technical supervisory services for Army dogs in many  other oversea commands and theaters. For example, there was the 228th Engineer  Mine Detection Company (Dog), complete with its own organic veterinary  detachment, which was deployed in the Mediterranean theater to test the efficacy  of dogs in detecting land


635

mines.18 Two clinical cases of rabies were reported in that company during the fall of  1944 (122). At about this time, six dog platoons came into the theater from the  Zone of Interior (the 33d through the 38th Quartermaster War Dog Platoons, of  which the 36th was specialized in mine detection).

A serious outbreak of  taeniasis was reported among a group of 30 Army sled dogs during 1943, at Camp  Prairie, Alberta, Canada (in the Northwest Service Command). This parasitism-attributed to the feeding of raw rabbit meat-was  brought under  control by removing rabbit meat from the dog diet and by the feeding of cooked  meats (45).

In the Alaskan Department,  Army dogs were maintained at a number of places, including the Aleutians. During  the period from January 1943 through May 1944, the veterinary officer at Ladd  Field, Alaska, aided in the care and management of 42 to 58 sled dogs, as  follows:

Average mean strength 49.9
Admissions:
For disease 38
For injury 28

                            Total

66
Treatment-days 555
Average days per admission 8
Died or destroyed 6
Number admitted per 1,000 average animal                    strength per year:
For disease 540.0
For injury 400.0

                            Total

940.0
Number per 1,000 average animal strength per                    year died or destroyed 80.0

The United States Forces in  Newfoundland received 35 Army dogs from the Zone of Interior during 1942, and  the 3d Infantry Division at Harmon Field had 4 sled dogs as of September 1943 (123,  124). There the dogs were vaccinated against canine distemper each year  due to the constant presence of a highly virulent form of the disease among the  civil dog population. At Sondre Strom Fjord, Greenland, another 125 military  dogs were stationed, as of December 1943 (125). A program of vaccination against  canine distemper was begun in Greenland during the fall of 1944 when an enzootic of that disease led to the loss of 53 dogs  (126, 127). Up to that  time, canine distemper, as well as rabies, was reportedly nonexistent in  Greenland.

A relatively large number of  Army dogs were stationed throughout the Caribbean Defense Command. The Puerto  Rican Department received 24 guard dogs from the Zone of Interior during  November 1942 and used them

18The company was activated    and organized during November 1943 at the Cat Island dog center; it was    disbanded about 1 year later.


636

at Fort Buchanan and on  Jamaica and Antigua (128, 129). The Panama Canal Department received dogs during  December 1942 (130, 131) and lost 28 dogs on account of disease and injury, as  shown in the following tabulation:

Average mean strength 59.0
Admissions:
For disease 149
For injury 44

                            Total

193
Died or destroyed 28
Number admitted per 1,000 average animal                    strength per year:
For disease 830.5
For injury 254.2

                            Total

1,084.7
Number per 1,000 average animal strength per                    year died or destroyed 152.5

Dog Disposition

The return of Army dogs from  the oversea theaters and the disposition from Army dog centers of those found  unsuitable or to be surplus to military needs were continuing problems.  Disposition, normally, was made after the dog owner, who had originally  volunteered the dog, advised the Army dog center of his desire concerning the  return of the dog; if the dog owner did not desire the dog, the Army took the  option of issuing the dog to a military organization as a mascot, giving it to  a breeders’ organization, or destroying it (132). Where the dog had been given  to the Army (that is, not volunteered) or purchased, the disposition was made  pursuant to that usually prescribed for Army horses and mules. The volunteered  dogs were fully reconditioned, demilitarized, and examined for freeness from  contagious or infectious disease. Emphasis was placed on releasing dogs in a  state of well being possibly better than that observed at the time the animal  was recruited. A high degree of importance was attached to precautions against  the release of dogs harboring a disease that could be disseminated or introduced  among the civilian dog population.

So far as the health status  of the released dogs was concerned, no differentiation was made between the  recruit dogs coming from Dogs for Defense, Inc., and the trained Army dogs which  had seen active military service. Unfortunately, a large number of recruit  dogs-many of the younger age  group-found  unacceptable upon arrival at the Army dog center were incubating or exposed to  canine distemper; these were treated at Government expense and then sent back to  the owner. On the other hand, of the 18,372 received at the Army dog centers,  1,500 recruit dogs were destroyed, with


637

the owner’s consent, or had  died on account of their physical health, including a great number of cases  with filariasis and a few of mange.19 Leptospirosis-infected dogs were  destroyed, and the owners were so advised. These diseases, particularly  filariasis, could not be kept out of the Army dog centers and, not being  amenable to treatment, caused losses among Army dogs in active military  service. They presented another problem when the Army, after December 1943,  started to release volunteered dogs to civilian owners. Owners of dogs which  were infected with filariasis were advised of the condition of their animals,  the difficulty in a successful permanent treatment, the threat of recurrence,  and the dangers of possibly spreading the disease to other dogs in the civilian  community. Few dog owners desired the return of their dogs when so advised (133,  134). Later, this disposition policy for filariasis-infected dogs was  changed; after January 1944, all Army dog centers in the Zone of Interior  were authorized to destroy filariasis-infected dogs whenever found (135).

Under existing Federal laws  and regulations almost any dog-healthy or  diseased-could be legally imported;  however, the Army established effective controls against the return of Army dogs  from the oversea commands, except those which qualified, after physical  examination by Veterinary Corps officers, as being “* * * not infected with  or carriers of a disease harmful to man or animal” (136, 137). Mainly  for these quoted reasons, the Army dogs used in scrub typhus areas in the  Southwest Pacific Area and filariasis-infected dogs in the South Pacific  Area were destroyed locally rather than returned to the Zone of Interior. In  the winter of 1945-46, the Army required that war dogs be vaccinated against  rabies prior to return to the Zone of Interior.

References

1. Memorandum, Col. W. O.    Kester, VC, Veterinary Division, SGO, for Historical Division, SGO, 9 Jan. 1948,    subject: War Dog Statistics.

2. Letter, Brig. Gen. R. A.    Kelser, Veterinary Division, SGO, to Leo Pollock, King Features Syndicate, New    York, N.Y., 31 Aug. 1945.

3. Letter, Surgeon General’s    Office, to Surgeon, Chilkoot Barracks, Haines, Alaska, 16 Dec. 1938, subject:    Final Report on Treatment of Dogs.

4. Letter, Surgeon, Chilkoot    Barracks, Haines, Alaska, to The Surgeon General, 31 Jan. 1941, subject: Final    Report on Treatment of Dogs.

5. Letter, Col. G. H. Koon,    VC, Veterinarian, HQ 1st Coast Artillery, Boston, Mass., to Veterinary Division,    SGO, 26 May 1941.

6. Letter, Newfoundland Base    Command, HQ 1st Coast Artillery, to The Adjutant General, 9 June 1941, subject:    Transfer of Dogs and Equipment to Newfoundland, with indorsements thereto.

7. Letter, Veterinarian, HQ    1st Coast Artillery, 15 Sept. 1941, subject: Examination of Sledge Dogs Prior to    Purchase.

8. Reynolds, F. H. K.: K-9    Command, Fort MacArthur, Calif. In: World War II History of the Army    Veterinary Service in the Ninth Service Command, Zone of Interior.

19See footnote 2, p. 616. Also, an estimated 450 trained Army dogs,      which had become vicious or which could not be demilitarized for return without      risk to the owners, were destroyed pursuant to the owners’ requests or to the      findings of an Army board of officers.


638

9. Letter, R. Crothers,    American Theater Wing, War Services, Inc., 730 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y., to    The Quartermaster General, 28 Jan. 1942.

10. Memorandum, Office of    the Quartermaster General, for the Undersecretary of War, 29 Jan. 1942, subject:    Acceptance-Gift of Dogs, with 1st indorsement of reply, 10 Feb. 1942.

11. MacKellar, R. S., Jr.: World War II History of the    Animal Service Branch, Veterinary Division, Surgeon General’s Office.

12. Quartermaster Corps    Accomplishments During World War II. Remount Service Installations Division,    Office of the Quartermaster General.

13. Going, C. G.: Dogs at    War. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1946.

14. Dogs for Defense, Inc.: We’re    in the Army Now!

15. Memorandum, Lt. Col. F.    C. Foy, Purchasing Division, HQ SOS, for The Quartermaster General, no date, subject:    Training and Issuing of Dogs for War.

16. QMG Circular 1-20, 30    Nov. 1942.

17. SR 10-115, 6 Sept. 1944.

18. Special Commission on    Diseases of Small Animals.    Report adopted at 8th Annual Meeting, American Veterinary    Medical Association, 25-26 August 1943. J. Am. Vet. M. A. 103: 344-345, November 1945.

19. Sentry Dogs for National    Defense. J. Am. Vet. M. A. 100: 365, April 1942.

20. Letter, Office of the    Quartermaster General, to The Surgeon General, 16 Sept. 1943, subject:    Veterinary Hospital Statistics at San Carlos, Calif.

21. Sager, F. C.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Fort Robinson Quartermaster Remount    Depot, Fort Robinson, Nebr. [Official record.]

22. Jones, T. C., Roby, T. O., Davis, C. L., and    Maurer, F. C.: Control of Leptospirosis in War Dogs.    Am. J. Vet. Research 6: 120-128, April 1945.

23. Wolfe, W. R.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Front Royal Quartermaster Depot    (Remount), Va. [Official record.]

24. Williams, G. A.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Cat Island War Dog Reception and    Training Center, Gulfport, Miss. [Official record.]

25. Annual Report, Army    Veterinary Service, War Dog Reception and Training Center, Camp Rimini, Mont.,    1943.

26. Twisselmann, N. M.:    World War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, War Dog Reception    and Training Center, San Carlos, Calif. [Official record.]

27. Harris, F. M.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Western Remount Area. [Official record.]

28. Merenda, J. J.: Report,    Army Veterinary Service, War Dog Reception and Training Center, Beltsville, Md., 15 Jan. 1946.

29. Drawing No. 1100-725,    Construction Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, 21 Nov. 1942.

30. Memorandum,    Requirements Division, SOS, to Chief Engineer, SOS, 12 Aug. 1942, subject:    Establishment of Dog Reception and Training Centers.

31. Letter, Veterinary    Division, SGO, to Requirements Division, SOS, 24 Aug. 1942, subject:    Establishment of Dog Reception and Training Centers.

32. Letter, Office of the    Quartermaster General, to Commanding Officer,    Front Royal Dog Center, 13 Nov. 1943, subject: Spaying of Unspayed Bitches.

33. FM 25-6, 4 Jan. 1941.

34. FM 25-6, 19 Aug. 1941.

35. Training Memorandum    19, HQ Hawaiian Department, subject: War Dogs: Notes on Their Handling, Feeding,    and Care.

36. Circular Letter 415,    Office of the Quartermaster General, 19 Nov. 1942, subject: Handling, Feeding,    and Care of War Dogs.

37. Letter, The Surgeon    General, to Office of the Quartermaster General, 26 Nov. 1943, subject: Dog    Transportation Manual, with 1st indorsement dated 6 Dec. 1943.


639

38. Letter, Office of the    Quartermaster General, to the Surgeon General, 1 May 1943, subject:    Proposed Technical Manual on War Dogs, with 1st indorsement dated 24 May    1943.

39. TM 10-396, 2 July 1943.

40. Mobilization Training    Program 10-5, 1 July 1944.

41. Letter, HQ Hawaiian    Department, 28 Jan. 1943, subject: Veterinary    Service for War Dogs.

42. Letter, Col. E. M. Curley, VC, Veterinarian, Chief Surgeon’s Office,    ETOUSA, to veterinary    officers, ETOUS A, 16 Oct. 1943, subject: Veterinary Sanitary Report on Guard    Dogs and Pigeons.

43. Letter, Lt. Col. R. S. MacKellar, Jr.,    VC, Veterinary Division,    SGO, to    Control Division, ASF, 7 Apr. 1944, subject: The Veterinary Canine Report, with    1st indorsement dated 7 Apr. 1944 and 2d indorsement dated 7 Apr. 1944.

44. Kester, W. O., and    Miller, E. B.: World War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Central    Pacific Area. [Official record.]

45. Bills, W. E.: Annual    Report, Army Veterinary Service, Northwest Service Command, 1943.

46. Curley, E. M.: Annual    Report, Veterinary Division, Chief Surgeon’s Office, ETOU SA, 1943.

47. OQMG Circular 1-20, 20    Nov. 1942, subject: Remount.

48. Letter, Lt. Col. F. W. Koester, QMC, Army    Dog Center, San Carlos, Calif., to Remount Division,    Office of the Quartermaster General, 16 Apr. 1943, subject: Test of Dog food.

49. QMC Miscellaneous    Letter 7, HQ Eighth Service Command, Dallas, Tex., 22 Dec. 1943, subject:    Mallein Test of Animals Prior to Sale or  Processing for Dog Food.

50. Betzold, C. W.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Seattle, Wash., Army Service    Forces Depot. [Official record.]

51. Letter, Office of the    Quartermaster General, to The Surgeon General, 12 Nov. 1942, subject:    Development of Complete Dog Ration, with 1st indorsement dated 17 Dec.    1942.

52. Letter, Maj. R. S. MacKellar, Jr., VC, Veterinary Division, SGO, to    M. L. Morris, Joint Committee    on Foods, American Veterinary Medical Association and American Animal Hospital    Association, New Brunswick, N. J., 24 July 1942, and letter of reply dated 27    July 1942.

53. Letter, M. L. Morris,    Joint Committee on Foods, to Brig. Gen. R. A. Kelser, Veterinary Division,    SGO, 2 Oct. 1942.

54. Letter, Richmond ASF    Depot, Richmond, Va., to The Quartermaster General, 5 Oct. 1943, subject:    Specification for Dog Food Ration (Dry), with 1st indorsement dated 20 Nov.    1943.

55. Vitamin A Order Revised    by War Production Board. J. Am. Vet. M. A. 101:    313-314, October 1942.

56. Alternative Dog Foods.    The National Provisioner 107: 22, 31 Oct. 1942.

57. Letter, T. B. King,    Grain Products Branch, Marketing Programs Division, Food Distribution    Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, to Lt. Col. R. S. MacKellar,    Jr., VC, Veterinary Division, SGO, 27 Oct. 1943.

58. Letter, P. E. Quintus,    Administrator of FDO 54, Food Distribution Administration, U.S. Department of    Agriculture, to Lt. Col. R. S. MacKellar, Jr., VC, Veterinary Division, SGO,    20 Nov. 1943.

59. Letter, Maj. C. D.    Barrett, VC, Veterinarian, Fort Robinson Dog Center, Nebr., subject:    Experimental Feed Test.

60. Letter, Capt.    G. B. Schnelle, VC, Front Royal Dog Center, Va., 18 July 1944. subject: Field Test of Dog Rations    (Dry), Type I.


640

61. Letter, Lt. Col. C. D.    Barrett, VC, Veterinarian, Fort Robinson Dog Center, Nebr., 20 July 1944,    subject: Experimental Feeding Test.

62. Letter, Capt. G. B.    Schnelle, VC, Front Royal Dog Center, Va., 1 Aug. 1944, subject: Feeding of    Type I Dog Feed Wet.

63. Mace, D. L., and Wagers,    R. P.: Veterinary Historical Activities in Chemical Warfare Research and    Training, Edgewood Arsenal, Md. [Official record.]

64. TB 3-205-6, 2 Sept.    1944.

65. Letter, Office of the    Quartermaster General, to The Surgeon General, 29 Apr. 1944, subject: MRL (EA)    Report No. 17, with 1st indorsement dated 15 June 1944.

66. Preliminary Drawing TO    700-6035, Construction Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, 28 Nov. 1942.

67. Drawing TO 700-6035 and -6036, Construction Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, 9 Dec. 1942.

68. Drawing TO 700-6037 and -6038, Construction Division, Office of the Chief of Engineers, 6 Aug. 1943.

69. Reports of Sick and    Wounded Animals, CBI War Dog Detachment, December 1944 through March 1945.

70. Case, L. I.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Boston Port of Embarkation. [Official record.]

71. Richter, J. B.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Hampton Roads Port of    Embarkation. [Official record.]

72. Kunnecke, R. P.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Los Angeles Port of Embarkation.    [Official record.]

73. Rife, G. J.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Service, San Francisco Port of Embarkation.    [Official record.]

74. Kingdom, E. G.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Seattle Port of Embarkation. [Official record.]

75. Tierney, W. F.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Fort Hamilton, N.Y. [Official record.]

76. Letter, 1st Lt. W. T.    Oglesby, VC, to Port Veterinarian, New Orleans Port of Embarkation, no date,    subject: Report on Ten Dogs Received at New Orleans PE Evening of 20 Nov. 1942.

77. Letter, 1st Lt. A. A.    Moore, VC, to Port Veterinarian, New Orleans Port of Embarkation, 28 Dec. 1942,    subject: Shipment of Sentry Dogs.

78. Letter, 1st Lt. P.    Myers, VC, New Orleans Port of Embarkation, 25 Nov. 1942, subject: Résumé of    Voyage Covering Shipment of 34 Sentry Dogs.

79. Letter, 1st Lt. J. B.    Key, VC, Presidio of San Francisco, Calif., to The Surgeon General, 20 Apr.    1943, subject: Surgeon’s Report of Voyage.

80. Letter, Capt. G. G.    Miller, Jr., VC, CBI Casual Dog Detachment, to Veterinarian, CBI, 21 July 1944.

81. Memorandum S30-15-42,    Adjutant General’s Office, SOS, 22 Dec. 1942, subject: Feed and Veterinary Care    for War Dogs.

82. Derrick, J. D.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, First Service Command, Zone of    Interior. [Official record.]

83. Wight, A. C.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Eighth Service Command, Zone of    Interior. [Official record.]

84. Letter, Forward Echelon,    HQ Ninth Service Command, to Fort MacArthur, Calif., 6 Mar. 1943, subject:    Veterinary Service for Dogs Assigned to Coast Guard Patrol Duty.

85. Letter, Veterinary    Division, SGO, to Veterinarian, HQ Ninth Service Command, 12 Mar. 1943.

86. Finance and Supply    Circular 125-43, U.S. Coast Guard, 15 June 1943, subject: Procurement of    Veterinary Supplies for Horses and Dogs.


641

87. Hawaii Defense Act Rule    131, Territory of Hawaii, 23 Feb. 1945.

88. Hawaii Defense Act Rule 144,    Territory of Hawaii, 7 Sept. 1945.

89. Miller, E. B.: History    of the Army Veterinary Service, USAF, Middle Pacific, 1 July-31 Dec. 1945.    [Official record.]

90. Derrick, J. D.: Annual    Report, Army Veterinary Service, First Service Command, Zone of Interior,    1943.

91. Caldwell, G. L.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Third Service Command, Zone of    Interior. [Official record.]

92. Shook, L. L.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Sixth Service Command, Zone of    Interior. [Official record.]

93. Reynolds, F. H. K.:    World War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Ninth Service Command, Zone    of Interior. [Official record.]

94. Memorandum, Col. F. W.    Koester, QMC, San Carlos Dog Center, for Col. Daniels, Office of the    Quartermaster General, 9 Sept. 1943.

95. Jones, T. C.: Annual    Reports, Veterinary Research Laboratory, Front Royal, Va., 1943-45.

96. Jones, T. C.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Research Laboratory, Front Royal, Va.    [Official record.]

97. T/O&E 10-397T, 1 Mar.    1944.

98. T/O&E 10-397T, 24 June 1944.

99. T/O&E 7-167, 14 Dec. 1944, as amended.

100. Advance copy, T/O 1-618,    26 May 1943.

101. T/O&E 1-618, 15    Sept. 1943.

102. Karr, J. R.: Duties of    the Veterinary Officer in the Air Transport Command. Air Surgeon’s Bull. 2:    394-395, November 1945.

103. Sperry, J. R., and    Huebner, R. A.: World War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, European    Theater of Operations. [Official record.]

104. Letter, PGA,    Headquarters, SOS, ETOUSA, to Base Sections and the Eighth and Ninth Air Forces,    21 Dec. 1943, subject: Guard Dog Training School.

105. Letter, Col. J. H.    McNinch, MC, Executive Officer, Chief Surgeon’s Office, HQ ETOU SA, to British    Ministry of Aircraft Production, London, Eng., 6 July 1944.

106. Letter, Maj. J. G.    Eagleman, VC, Surgeon’s Office, Eastern Base Section, SOS, ETOUSA, to Chief    Surgeon, ETOUS A, 3 Jan. 1944, subject: Medical Supplies for Veterinary    Officers Kits, with indorsements thereto.

107. Info Routing Slip,    Veterinary Division, Office of the Chief Surgeon, HQ ETOUSA, 17 Apr. 1944,    subject: Equipment for Veterinary Care of Guard Dogs, with four numbered    memorandums.

108. Circular 57, HQ ETOUSA,    27 May 1944, subject: Vaccination of Dogs.

109. Blood, B. D.: History    of the Army Veterinary Service with the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe    During 1944. [Official record.]

110. Letters, Col. R. G.    Yule, VC, Surgeon’s Office, HQ First U.S. Army, 3 Feb., 10 Mar., and 6 Apr.    1945, subject: Veterinary Report on Guard Dogs, War Dogs, and Sled Dogs.

111. Smock, S. C., and Baker, J. E.: World War II    History of the Army Veterinary    Service, Southwest Pacific    Area. [Official record.]

112. Report of Sick and    Wounded Animals, Base Section 3, SWPA, September through December 1943.

113. Quarterly historical    reports, Veterinary Service, HQ Sixth U.S. Army, 16 Feb. and 28 Apr. 1945.

114. R. T. Seymour,    Surgeon’s Office, HQ Tenth U.S. Army, Report on the Veterinary Service,    Okinawa, for the Period 1 April to 30 September 1945.

115. Hawaii Defense Act Rule 136, Territory of Hawaii, 7 May 1945.


642

116. Cranfield, J. G.:    Veterinary History of the War Dog Program in the Central Pacific Area, 1945.    [Official record.]

117. Miller, E. B.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Maui Island, Central Pacific    Area. [Official    record.]

118. Stainbach, I. M.,    Governor of Hawaii: Proclamation Pursuant to Section 211, R.L.H. 1935, 6 Apr.    1944.

119. Hodgson, E. E., and    Moore, R. O., Jr.: World War II  History of the Army Veterinary Service; SoPac    Area. [Official record.]

120. Annual Report, Surgeon,    Island Command; New Caledonia, 1944.

121. Mohri, R. W.: World War    II History of the Army Veterinary Service, CBI. [Official record.]

122. Reports of Sick and    Wounded Animals, 228th Engineers Mine Detection Company (Dog), September    through November 1944.

123. Carter, P. R.: World    War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Newfoundland Base Command. [Official record.]

124. Reports of Sick and    Wounded Animals, 3d Infantry Division, September 1943.

125. Letter, Capt. G. R.    Donahue, MC, 190th Station Hospital, to Base Veterinary Officer, APO 858, 31    Dec. 1943, subject: Veterinary Report.

126. Letter, HQ Greenland    Base Command, to The Surgeon General, 29 Jan. 1944, subject: Prophylactic    Immunization of Dogs in Greenland, with lst indorsement dated 9 Feb. 1944.

127. Letter, Capt. B. W.    Larsen, VC, HQ Greenland Base Command, to Base Surgeon, 2 Jan. 1945, subject:    Monthly Veterinary Sanitary Report.

128. Annual Report,    Veterinary Service, Surgeon’s Office, Puerto Rican Department, 1942.

129. Annual Report,    Veterinary Service, Surgeon’s Office, Antilles Department, 1945.

130. Stewart,    R. B.: World War II History of the Army Veterinary Service, Panama Canal    Department. [Official    record.]

131. Annual Reports,    Veterinarian, Surgeon’s Office, Panama Canal Department, 1943-45.

132. Letter, Office of the    Quartermaster General, to Army dog centers, 20 Dec. 1943, subject:    Disposition of Surplus Donated Dogs.

133. First indorsement, Lt.    Col. R. S. MacKellar, Jr., VC, Veterinary Division, Surgeon General’s Office,    to 1st Lt. G. A. Williams, VC, Veterinarian, Cat Island Dog Center, 15 May 1943,    in reply to basic letter, 10 May 1943, subject: Disposition of Animals Known to    Have Filariasis.

134. Second indorsement,    Brig. Gen. R. A. Kelser, Veterinary Division, SGO, to Office of the    Quartermaster General, 2 Feb. 1944, on basic letter, Capt. H. M. Rhett, Jr., QMC, Cat Island Dog Center, to Remount Branch, Office of the Quartermaster    General, subject: Disposition of Dogs Infested With Microfilaria Immitis.

135. Letter, Office of the    Quartermaster General, to Army dog centers, 29 Jan. 1944, subject:    Disposition of Dogs Infected With Filariasis.

136. First indorsement, Maj. Gen. C. L. Corbin, Acting Quartermaster General, to Commanding General,    CPBC, 8 Feb. 1945, subject: Disposition of War Dogs Overseas; basic letter not    available.

137. Second indorsement, San    Carlos, Calif., to 25th QM War Dog Platoon, 25 Sept. 1944; in reply to basic    letter, 21 Sept. 1944, subject: Return of War Dogs Not Suitable for Tactical    Use.